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What Is a SOC? Tiers, Core Functions and Technologies


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What is a Security Operations Center (SOC)?

A security operations center (SOC) is a centralized facility for a team of information security specialists and IT professionals who analyze, monitor, and safeguard an organization against cyber attacks. 

SOC teams continuously monitor networks, internet traffic, servers, desktops, databases, endpoint devices, applications, and other IT assets for indications of a security event and handle incident response.

SOC staff typically have all the skills they need to identify and respond to cybersecurity incidents. However, they also cooperate with other departments or teams to share information about incidents with relevant stakeholders. Most SOCs operate 24/7, with employees working in shifts to mitigate threats and manage log activity. Some organizations outsource their SOC to third-party providers. 

SOCs are a key strategy for minimizing the costs of data breaches. They help organizations respond swiftly to intrusions and constantly improve threat detection and prevention methods. 

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Incident Response Plan

  • A comprehensive checklist of IR action items
  • A detailed roles & responsibilities matrix
  • A robust framework to customize for your needs

Benefits of a Security Operations Center

The main advantage of having a security operations center is enhancing security incident detection via ongoing analysis and continuous activity monitoring. By studying this activity over an organization’s endpoints, servers, networks, and databases 24/7, SOC teams ensure timely identification and response to security incidents. Organizations rely on the SOC to protect against security incidents and intrusions, irrespective of the time of day, source, or attack type. 

Many studies have shown that the average time to detect and respond to a breach is over 100 days. Establishing a SOC helps organizations improve their ability to detect and react to threats in a timely manner to eliminate or reduce the catastrophic impact of cyber attacks.

Understanding SOC Tiers

Tier 1: Monitoring and Initial Analysis

Tier 1 is the first line of defense in a SOC. Analysts at this level are responsible for the continuous, real-time monitoring of security events and alerts using tools such as Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems. Their primary duties include:

  • Alert triage: Reviewing incoming alerts to determine their validity and urgency.
  • Initial investigation: Performing preliminary investigations to confirm if an alert indicates a true security incident or a false positive.
  • Basic remediation: Implementing immediate containment measures such as isolating affected systems or applying patches to mitigate the threat.
  • Escalation: Escalating incidents to Tier 2 when they cannot be resolved at the initial level or require more in-depth analysis.

Tier 1 analysts need a foundational understanding of cybersecurity principles and familiarity with the tools used for monitoring and analysis. They help provide a rapid response to potential security threats, ensuring that detected incidents are quickly addressed.

Tier 2: Incident Response and Analysis

Tier 2 analysts take over incidents escalated from Tier 1, providing a more thorough investigation and response. Their responsibilities include:

  • Incident validation: Confirming the validity of escalated incidents and determining their scope and impact.
  • Detailed analysis: Conducting in-depth analysis to understand the nature of the threat, the method of attack, and potential vulnerabilities exploited.
  • Incident response: Implementing comprehensive response measures, which may include containment, eradication of malware, and system restoration.
  • Collaboration: Coordinating with other IT and business units to ensure a unified and effective response to security incidents.

Tier 2 analysts have a deeper knowledge of cybersecurity concepts and are proficient in using advanced tools for threat analysis. They ensure that incidents are handled efficiently and that the organization’s security posture is maintained.

Tier 3: Threat Hunting and Problem Resolution

Tier 3 is focused on proactive threat hunting and resolving complex security issues. Analysts at this level are responsible for:

  • Threat hunting: Actively seeking out hidden threats within the network that may not trigger traditional detection mechanisms.
  • Forensic analysis: Performing detailed forensic investigations to trace the origin of an incident, understand the attack vectors, and determine the extent of the compromise.
  • Root cause analysis: Identifying the root cause of incidents to prevent recurrence and improve security measures.
  • Advanced problem solving: Addressing and resolving complex security issues that require specialized knowledge and expertise.

Tier 3 analysts use advanced tools and techniques, such as behavioral analysis and machine learning, to detect and mitigate sophisticated threats. Their role is crucial in enhancing the organization’s defenses and ensuring long-term security improvements.

Tier 4: SOC Manager/Director

The SOC Manager or Director oversees the entire SOC operations, ensuring that all security measures align with organizational policies and compliance requirements. Their duties include:

  • Strategic planning: Developing and implementing long-term security strategies and policies.
  • Team management: Leading and managing the SOC team, providing guidance, training, and support to ensure high performance.
  • Coordination: Collaborating with other departments and external partners to enhance the organization’s overall security posture.
  • Compliance oversight: Ensuring that the organization complies with relevant security standards and regulations.
  • Communication: Reporting to senior management and stakeholders on security operations, incidents, and the organization’s security status.

The SOC Manager or Director is responsible for maintaining the effectiveness of the SOC, driving continuous improvement, and ensuring that the organization is prepared to handle any security challenges.

10 SOC Security Functions

1. Maintaining Inventory of Available Resources

The SOC oversees two asset types—processes, devices, and applications that require protection and defensive tools that can help achieve this protection.

  • What the SOC protects—SOC teams cannot protect data and devices they cannot see. Without control and visibility from the device to the cloud, there will be areas overlooked in the network security posture that may be identified and exploited by attackers. The SOC aims to achieve a comprehensive view of the organization’s threat landscape, including networks, endpoints, applications, and servers. This view should also include traffic flowing between these assets and third-party services. 
  • How the SOC protects—SOC teams must also have the skills to use all available cybersecurity tools, and must correctly exercise all security workflows and best practices, to maximize agility and efficiency of SOC processes. 

2. Preparation and Preventative Maintenance

Even the best-equipped and most agile response methodology is not as good as stopping issues from happening in the first place. To stop cyberattacks before they happen, the SOC uses two types of preventative measures: 

  • Preparation—team members must remain up-to-date about the latest security innovations, the newest trends in cybercrime, and the development of innovative threats. This research can offer direction for cybersecurity initiatives in the future and help create disaster recovery plans to guide the organization in an emergency. 
  • Preventative maintenance—involves all actions that can make it harder for cyberattacks to succeed, including updating and maintaining existing systems regularly, patching vulnerabilities, updating firewall policies, whitelisting, blacklisting, and hardening IT systems. 

Related content: Read our guide to incident response plans

3. Continuous Monitoring

The SOC uses tools to scan the network continuously and flag any suspicious activities or abnormalities. Monitoring the network 24/7 provides the SOC with notifications of emerging threats, making it possible to mitigate them or prevent attacks in their early stages. 

Monitoring tools may include endpoint detection and response (EDR) and security information and event management (SIEM). Advanced tools employ behavioral analysis to learn the distinction between normal everyday operations and real threat behavior, limiting the degree of triage and analysis that has to be carried out by humans. 

4. Alert Prioritization and Management

When monitoring tools provide alerts, the SOC must examine each one closely, do away with false positives, and decide how serious any actual threats are and what they might be targeting. The SOC is responsible for prioritizing alerts, identifying which ones are likely to be real security incidents, and investigating them to enable rapid response.

5. Threat Response

As soon as the SOC team identifies an incident they function as a first responder, carrying out actions such as isolating or shutting down infected endpoints, stopping harmful processes, removing malware, and more. The aim is to mitigate the threat with minimal disruption to the organization’s continuity. 

6. Recovery and Remediation

An SOC oversees the steps taken in the wake of an attack, ensuring that the organization effectively mitigates the threat and communicates with affected parties. It is not enough for SOC teams to issue alerts and view logs. A core component of incident response is assisting organizations so they can effectively recover from an incident. 

For instance, recovery may involve cleaning ransomware or malware from affected systems, resetting passwords for compromised accounts, wiping and reimaging infected endpoints. 

7. Log Management

The SOC should gather, maintain, and regularly review logs of all network communications and activities across the whole organization. This information helps establish a baseline for regular network activity, can expose threats, and can be used by IT and security specialists for forensics and remediation following an incident. 

Many SOCs utilize a SIEM to correlate and aggregate the data feeds from firewalls, operating systems and endpoints, and applications, creating a central repository of security data.

 

SOC teams produce data-driven analysis. This analysis helps an organization fine-tune security monitoring and alerting tools and attend to vulnerabilities. For instance, drawing on information gathered from log files and different sources, an SOC team can put forward an improved network segmentation strategy or patching regime. Enhancing existing cybersecurity is a core responsibility of an SOC.  

8. Root Cause Investigation

Following an incident, the SOC needs to work out precisely what happened, why, how, and when. Throughout this investigation, SOC teams rely on log data and other details to discover the source of the issue which will help them stop similar issues from arising in the future.

9. Security Process Improvement

Cybercriminals constantly refine their tactics and tools to stay one step ahead of defenses, the SOC must carry out improvements on an ongoing basis. One way to improve the security process is to perform post-mortem investigations of incidents and identify how the SOC team could have done better. Another way is to carry out realistic practice sessions such as war games with blue teams and red teams.  

10. Compliance Management

Organizations protect themselves through external security standards and adherence to a security policy. External standards include the ISO 27001x, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the NIST Cybersecurity Framework (CSF). Organizations need an SOC to help make sure that they meet the requirements of key best practices and security standards. 

What are SOC Team Roles?

The SOC consists of skilled engineers, security analysts, and supervisors who make sure everything functions smoothly. They are specialists trained specifically to manage and monitor security threats. SOC teams are proficient in many security tools, and must have hands-on experience in incident triage, forensic investigation, and response to real security incidents. 

Many SOCs use a hierarchical approach to deal with security issues – engineers and analysts are assigned to a hierarchical level according to their experience and skills. A classic team structure is as follows:  

Level 1: Security Analyst

Security analysts are generally the first people to respond to an incident. They are the front-line fighters protecting against cyber attacks and investigating threats. Their role is to identify threats, analyze them, and rapidly respond. In addition, analysts may need to implement security measures as specified by management. They could also contribute to the organization’s disaster recovery plans. In many SOCs, security analysts need to respond to incidents that occur beyond business hours.

Level 2: Senior Security Analyst 

Senior analysts are activated when Level 1 analysts discover severe threats or large-scale security incidents. Senior analysts investigate affected systems, look over intelligence reports and identify the type of attack. They create plans to fix damaged assets, protect other assets, and work to eradicate the threat. 

Level 3: Security Manager

Security managers are top-level expert security analysts who actively search for vulnerabilities within the organization’s network. They utilize advanced threat detection tools to find and assess weaknesses and develop recommendations for improving the general security posture. This group includes specialists like compliance auditors and forensic investigators. 

Level 4: Chief Information Security Officer (CISO)

CISOs define and oversee the organization’s security operations. They are the authority on policies, procedures, and the strategies in all areas of the organization’s cyber security operations. In some organizations, they also manage compliance, but in others there are separate teams focused on this task. 

Generally, a CISO communicates directly with the CEO and has a direct line of contact with upper management. CISO positions require more than technical or security skills – communication is a key part of the role, because CISOs need to communicate complex issues to upper management and stakeholders, who might not be versed in technical matters.

Security Engineers

Security engineers are responsible for building security systems and architecture – they maintain security tools and recommend the use of new tools. They typically have in-depth knowledge of SIEM platforms. They also document procedures, requirements, and protocols to ensure that other users have the required resources. 

Incident Response Manager

In a large organization, the SOC might employ a dedicated Director of Incident Response. This role is responsible for communicating the impact of serious incidents to the whole organization, coordinating and prioritizing actions during an event’s identification, analysis, and containment.

Related content: Learn more in our guide to the incident response team

Key SOC Technologies and Tools

Here are some of the main technology solutions used by SOCs.

SIEM

SIEM systems aggregate and analyze log data from various sources to provide a unified view of an organization’s security posture. They are essential for detecting, investigating, and responding to security incidents in real time. SIEM systems enable SOC teams to implement:

  • Log aggregation: Collect and centralize logs from different devices, applications, and systems.
  • Correlation: Analyze log data to identify patterns and correlations that indicate potential security incidents.
  • Alerting: Generate alerts for detected threats and anomalies based on predefined rules and machine learning models.
  • Reporting: Produce detailed reports for compliance, auditing, and management purposes.

Security Orchestration, Automation and Response (SOAR)

SOAR platforms streamline and automate security operations by reducing manual workload and improving response times. They help SOC teams with the following:

  • Orchestration: Integrate various security tools and processes to work together seamlessly.
  • Automation: Automate repetitive tasks such as alert triage, incident response, and threat hunting.
  • Playbooks: Use predefined playbooks to standardize and expedite incident response workflows.
  • Collaboration: Facilitate communication and coordination among SOC team members and other stakeholders.

Extended Detection and Response (XDR)

XDR solutions provide a holistic approach to threat detection and response by integrating data from multiple security layers. XDR solutions help SOC teams with these capabilities:

  • Unified view: Offer a comprehensive view of threats across endpoints, networks, servers, and cloud environments.
  • Advanced analytics: Use machine learning and behavioral analytics to detect sophisticated threats.
  • Cross-layer correlation: Correlate data from different sources to identify complex attack patterns that span multiple security domains.
  • Automated response: Enable automated and coordinated responses to threats, minimizing the impact on the organization.

Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS)

A NIDS monitors network traffic for suspicious activities and potential threats. Key functions of NIDS include:

  • Traffic analysis: Examining network traffic patterns to identify anomalies or known attack signatures.
  • Real-time monitoring: Continuously scanning network data to detect intrusions as they occur.
  • Alert generation: Creating alerts when suspicious activities are detected, allowing SOC teams to investigate potential threats.
  • Packet capture: Recording network packets for forensic analysis and to understand the nature and scope of an attack.

Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

DLP technologies are designed to detect and prevent data breaches and exfiltration by monitoring, detecting, and blocking sensitive data while in use, in motion, and at rest. DLP tools integrate with other security systems to provide comprehensive data protection and compliance with regulations like GDPR and HIPAA. DLP solutions help SOC teams to:

  • Identify sensitive data: Recognize and classify sensitive information such as intellectual property, personal data, and financial records.
  • Monitor data movement: Track data movement across networks, endpoints, and storage devices to detect unauthorized transfers.
  • Enforce policies: Apply data protection policies to prevent data from leaving the organization through email, USB drives, or cloud services.
  • Alert and block: Generate alerts for potential data breaches and automatically block suspicious activities to prevent data loss.

Identity and Access Management (IAM)

IAM solutions manage user identities and regulate access to critical systems and data. They are crucial for maintaining the principle of least privilege and ensuring that access to sensitive information is tightly controlled. IAM helps SOC teams with:

  • Authentication: Ensuring that only authorized users can access systems and data through mechanisms such as multi-factor authentication (MFA).
  • Authorization: Defining and enforcing user permissions and access controls based on roles and policies.
  • User lifecycle management: Managing user identities from creation through modification to deactivation, including onboarding and offboarding.
  • Monitoring and auditing: Tracking user activities to detect unusual behavior or unauthorized access attempts

Get our Ultimate Template for

Incident Response Plan

  • A comprehensive checklist of IR action items
  • A detailed roles & responsibilities matrix
  • A robust framework to customize for your needs

6 Key SOC Challenges and How to Overcome Them 

Talent Gap

Challenge—there is a large shortage of cybersecurity professionals and thus many cybersecurity job vacancies. Worldwide, there are millions of cybersecurity positions that cannot be filled due to a lack of talent. Given this scarcity, SOC management finds it difficult to recruit staff, and faces the risk of burnout and attrition of existing team members.

Solution—a SOC should seek out talent from within and consider training employees to fill gaps within the SOC team. In addition, every critical SOC role must have a backup – an individual who has the skills required to keep things running if the position unexpectedly becomes vacant.    

Sophisticated Attackers

Challenge—network defense is a core element of an organization’s cybersecurity strategy. It requires attention as sophisticated cybercriminals have the skillset and tools to bypass conventional defenses, including endpoint security and firewalls.  

Solution—deploy tools with machine learning capabilities or anomaly detection, which can discover sophisticated threats, reducing the need for human investigation.

Big Data

Challenge—the volume of data and network traffic the typical organization deals with is tremendous. With such enormous growth in log data comes an increasing challenge in analyzing all this data in real time.

Solution—SOCs use automated tools to parse, filter, correlate, and aggregate information to enable convenient, centralized analysis.

Related content: Read our guide to security automation

Alert Fatigue

Challenge—in many security systems, there are many anomalies and a huge amount of security alerts. If the SOC relies on unfiltered alerts, these alerts can quickly become overwhelming. Many alerts are false positives, or do not contain sufficient context to investigate the incident. These types of low quality alerts divert teams away from real security incidents.    

Solution—a SOC must have a solid strategy for alert prioritization. It is critical to improve alert quality and differentiate between low-importance and high-importance alerts. Utilize behavioral analytics tools to ensure SOC teams attend to the most severe issues first. 

Unknown Threats

Challenge—Traditional signature-based detection, firewalls, and endpoint detection cannot discover an unknown threat. SOCs find it difficult to detect and defend against zero day threats. 

Solution—SOC teams can improve their rules, signature, and threshold-based threat detection solutions by using behavior analytics to discover unusual behavior. 

Security Tool Overload

Challenge—many organizations acquire several security tools to identify all possible threats. These tools tend to be disconnected from one another, have restricted scope, and cannot identify sophisticated threats that cut across security silos. 

Solution—implement technology like eXtended Detection and Response (XDR), which combines data from all layers of the IT environment to identify sophisticated or evasive threats.

Related content: Read our detailed guide to XDR

Security Operations Center: In-House vs. Outsourced

When deciding between an in-house SOC and an outsourced SOC (SOCaaS), organizations must weigh several factors to determine the best fit for their needs.

In-House SOC

An in-house SOC is managed and operated by the organization’s internal team. This approach provides full control over security operations and direct oversight of all processes and policies.

Pros:

  • Control: Complete control over security practices and immediate access to sensitive data.
  • Customization: Ability to tailor security measures and responses to the organization’s needs and threats.
  • Integration: Seamless integration with other internal departments and processes.

Cons:

  • Cost: Significant upfront investment in technology, personnel, and training.
  • Resource intensive: Requires ongoing recruitment, training, and retention of skilled security professionals.
  • Scalability: Scaling an in-house SOC can be challenging and expensive.

Outsourced SOC (SOCaaS)

SOCaaS involves outsourcing security operations to a specialized third-party provider. This model is suitable for organizations lacking the resources or expertise to maintain an in-house SOC.

Pros:

  • Expertise: Access to a team of experienced security professionals with specialized skills.
  • Cost-efficiency: Lower upfront costs and predictable subscription fees.
  • Scalability: Easily scalable services to match the organization’s growth and evolving security needs.
  • Advanced tools: Benefit from the latest security technologies and methodologies.

Cons:

  • Control: Less direct control over security operations and potential data privacy concerns.
  • Customization: May be less tailored to the organization’s specific needs compared to an in-house SOC.
  • Dependency: Dependence on the provider’s availability and response times.

SOC Security with Cynet 360

Beyond XDR – Autonomous Breach Protection

Cynet 360 is the world’s first Autonomous Breach Protection platform that natively integrates the endpoint, network and user attack prevention & detection of XDR with the automated investigation and remediation capabilities of SOAR, backed by a 24/7 world-class MDR service. End to end, fully automated breach protection is now within reach of any organization, regardless of security team size and skill level.

XDR Layer: End-to-End Prevention & Detection

  • Endpoint protection—Multilayered protection against malware, ransomware, exploits and fileless attacks
  • Network protection—Protecting against scanning attacks, MITM, lateral movement and data exfiltration
  • User protection—Preset behavior rules coupled with dynamic behavior profiling to detect malicious anomalies
  • Deception— Wide array of network, user, file decoys to lure advanced attackers into revealing their hidden presence

SOAR Layer: Response Automation

  • Investigation— Automated root cause and impact analysis
  • Findings—Actionable conclusions on the attack’s origin and its affected entities
  • Remediation— Elimination of malicious presence, activity and infrastructure across user, network and endpoint attacks
  • Visualization— Intuitive flow layout of the attack and the automated response flow

MDR Layer: Expert Monitoring and Oversight

  • Alert monitoring— First line of defense against incoming alerts, prioritizing and notifying customer on critical events
  • Attack investigation—Detailed analysis reports on the attacks that targeted the customer
  • Proactive threat hunting—Search for malicious artifacts and IoC within the customer’s environment
  • Incident response guidance— Remote assistance in isolation and removal of malicious infrastructure, presence and activity

Simple Deployment

Cynet 360 can be deployed across thousands of endpoints in less than two hours. It can be immediately used to uncover advanced threats and then perform automatic or manual remediation, disrupt malicious activity and minimize damage caused by attacks.

Get a free trial of Cynet 360 and experience the world’s only integrated XDR, SOAR and MDR solution.

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